Nilai Cerna dan Biodegradasi Theobromin POD Kakao dengan perlakuan Fermentasi Menggunakan Inokulen Multi Mikroba

Suci Wulandari, Ali Agus, Mohamad Soejono, Muhamad Nur Cahyanto

Abstrak

Beberapa tahun terakhir telah diberitakan adanya kultur multi mikrobia yang dipergunakan untuk permentasi bahan pakan dan complete feed. Kultur multi mikroba ini dikenalkan dengan nama Saus Burger Pakan ® (SBP ®). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh fermentasi pod kakao menggunakan multimikrobia yang terkandung dalam SBP terhadap nilai cerna serat dan biodegradasi theobromin. Pod kakao difermentasi dalam kondisi anaerob pada suhu ruang. Kadar inokulum yang ditambahkan adalah 0;0,05; dan 0,1%. Selama fermentasi dilakukan pengambilan sampel pada hari ke-0, 3 dan 6 untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan bakteri selama fermentasi pod kakao, perubahan pH, perubahan nilai cerna, dan degradasi theobromin selama fermentasi, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan isolasi bakteri untuk mengetahui karakteristik isolat bakteri dari pod kakao terfermentasi dengan cara isolat yang diperoleh diuji kemampuannya dalam menghasilkan enzim selulase (CMC-ase dan β-glukoseidase) dan kemampuannya dalam mendegradasi theobromin.

Hasil penelitian menunjukan  bahwa selama fermentasi pod kakao terjadi kenaikan populasi  bakteri asam laktat dan bakteri total, penurunan pH, kenaikan nilai cerna serat, dan penurunan kandungan theobromin dalam pod kakao. Perubahan parameter tersebut lebih nyata terjadi pada pod kakao  yang difermentasi dengan kadar air 40% dan diinokulasi dengan SBP ® dosis 0,05% dengan lama fermentasi 6 hari. Penurunan theobromin pada pod kakao mencapai 17,02%. Kenaikan nilai cerna serat dan penurunan kandungan theobromin selama fermentasi pod kakao oleh inokulan SBP dikonfirmasi dengan karakteristik isolat-isolat bakteri yang diperoleh  dari pod kakao terfermentasi. Ada 8 isolat bakteri yang mampu menghasilkan enzim CMC-ase dan dan β-glukosidase dengan tingkat produksi yang berbeda-beda. Beberapa isolat bakteri juga mampu menurunkan kandungan theobromin dalam kultur cair sampai sebesar 27,07%

Digestibility Value and Theobromine Biodegradation of Cocoa Pod with Treatment of Fermentation Using Multi Microbial Inoculum

Abstract

In the recent years it has been reported that there is a multimicrobe culture which is used for fermentation of feed ingredients and complete feeds. This multi microbial culture is introduce by the name of SBP ® (saur burger feed). This research study aims to understand the influence of fermented cocoa pod using multi microbe which is contained in the SBP to digest and biodegrade theobromine in the cocoa pod. Cocoa pod was fermented under anaerobic conditions at room temperature. Inoculums level which were added consist of 0; 0..05, and 0.1 % respectfully. During fermentation of the cocoa pod, its samples were taken on days of 0,3 and 6, to understand the bacterial growth, pH changes, and change in digestibility, and biodegradation of theobromine. Furthermore, it was followed by the isolation of bacteria, tounderstand the characteristics of obtained bacterial isolates, and fermented cocoa pod by way of isolates and tested its ability in producing the cellulase enzyme (CMC-ase and β-glukosidase), and its ability to degrade the theobromine.

The research results showed that during fermentation of cocoa pod there were increasing of lactic acid bacteria population, and total bacteria, decreasing in the pH, increasing in the fiber digestibility, and decreasing in content of theobromin in the cocoa pod. Changes in these parameters, more real case, and the cocoa pod is fermented with a moisture content of 40 % and inoculated with a dose of 0.05% SBP ® with a long fermentation of 6 days. Decreasing in the fermentatio of theobromine in the cocoa pod with the largest reaching of 17.02%. Increasing in the fiber digestibility, and decreasing in the content of theobromine, during fermentation of cocoa pod by inoculants SBP, it is confirmed with characteristic of bacterial isolates which is obtained from the fermented cocoa pod. There were 8 isolates of bacteria, which can able to reduce the content of theobromin, in liquid culture, up to 27.07 %

Sumber: Jurnal Agritech. Mei 2014

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